Collective Biographies of WomenAn Annotated Bibliography
Alger, Rev. W. R. The Friendships of Women. 3d ed., Boston: Roberts, 1867; 1868; 1870; 1872; 1875; 1882; 1885.
Largely a treatise on the subject, a prototype of social psychology in a way, with many pages of brief biographical history (416 pages excluding front matter). Dedicated to Anna Cabot Lodge. "Works by the Same Author": The Poetry of the Orient; A Critical History of the Doctrine of a Future Life; The Genius of Solitude. The table of contents runs for four close-typed pages; we reproduce the list for searching purposes without tagging the names. The scope is international and overwhelmingly Western, with an interesting anachronism and willingness to include Biblical, mythic or legendary persons. Some startling assertions include the friendship of Augusta and Lord Byron; the generally conservative admiration of women is characterized in the headings at the end advising women to avoid politics; both men and women should eschew power. Certain persons such as Elizabeth Barrett Browning appear more than once. After sections affirming the significant history of female friendship (HAVE WOMEN NO FRIENDSHIPS?) and defining his concept (FRIENDSHIP INSIDE AND OUTSIDE THE TIES OF BLOOD, FRIENDSHIP BETWEEN PARENTS AND CHILDREN), by page 47 the text accumulates very short biographies (often of one paragraph, but sometimes of several): FRIENDSHIPS OF MOTHERS AND SONS Cornelia and the Gracchi. Olympias and Alexander. Monica and Augustine. John Quincy Adams and His Mother. Goethe and his Mother. The Humboldts and their Mother. Guizot and his Mother. FRIENDSHIPS OF DAUGHTERS AND FATHERS Tullia and Cicero. Margaret Roper and Sir Thomas More. Agnes and William Wirt. Mary and John Evelyn. Theodosia and Aaron Burr. Maria and Richard Edgeworth. Madame de Stael and Necker. Letitia Landon and her Father. FRIENDSHIPS OF SISTERS AND BROTHERS Narcissus and his Reflection. Electra and Orestes. Antigone and Polynices. Diana and Apollo. Scholastica and Benedict. Cornelia and Tasso. Margaret and Francis. Mary and Sir Philip Sidney. Catherine and Robert Boyle. Caroline and William Herschel. Letitia and John Aikin. Cornelia and Goethe. Lena and Jacobi. Lucile and Chateaubriand. Charlotte and Schleiermacher. Dorothy and Wordsworth. Augusta and Byron. Mary and Charles Lamb. Fanny and Felix Mendelssohn. Whittier and his Sister. Eugenie and Maurice de Guerin. FRIENDSHIPS OF WIVES AND HUSBANDS. Count and Countess del Verme. Lady and Sir James Mackintosh. Aspasia and Pericles. Portia and Brutus. Arria and Pertus. Paulina and Seneca. Calpurnia and Pliny. Timoxena and Plutarch. Castara and Habington. Faustina and Zappi. Jeanne and Roland. Caroline and Herder. Lucy and John Hutchinson. Sarah and John Austin. Elizabeth and Robert Browning. Leopold Schefer and his Wife. John Stuart Mill and his Wife. Lady and Lord William Russell. Artemisia and Mausolus. Moomtaza and Jehan. PLATONIC LOVE; THE MARRIAGE OF SOULS Relative Prevalence of Vice in our day. Moral Influence of Friendships between Men and Women. Analysis of Platonic Love. Laura and Petrarch. Beatrice and Dante. Heloise and Abelard. Danger and Safety of Platonic Love. Countess Matilda and Hildebrand. The "Woldemar" of Jacobi. Influence of Chivalry in developing Friendships of Men and Women. Causes of Prominent Social Position of Women in France. Friendships in Catholic Church between Women and their Directors. Olympias and Chrysostom. Paula and Jerome. Clara and Francis of Assissi. Chantal and Francis of Sales. Guion and Lacombe. La Maisonfort and Fenelon. Cornuau and Bossuet. Theresa and John of the Cross. The Friendship of Vittoria Colonna and Michael Angelo. Mademoiselle de Scudery and Pelisson. Madame de Sevigne and Corbinelli. Madame de la Fayette and Rochefoucauld. Madame du Deffand and D'Alembert. Mademoiselle Lespinasse and D'Alembert. Madame de Stael and Montmorency. Magdalen Herbert and Dr. Donne. Lady Masham and John Locke. Mary Unwin and Cowper. Mrs. Clive and Garrick. Hannah More and Langhorne. Joanna Baillie and Sir Walter Scott. Duchess of Devonshire and Fox. Duchess of Gordon and Dr. Beattie. Charlotte and Humboldt. Bettine and Goethe. Goethe's Treatment of Women in his Life and in his Works. Princess of Homburg and Marchioness di Barolo and Silvio Pellico. Isabel Fenwick and Wordsworth. Harriet Martineau and Channing. Lucy Aikin and Channing. Frances Power Cobbe and Theodore Parker. Friendships of Women and their Tutors. Zenobia and Longinus. Countess of Pembroke and Daniel. Princess Elizabeth and Descartes. Caroline of Brunswick and Leibnitz. Lady Jane Grey and Elmer. Elizabeth Robinson and Middleton. Hester Salusbury and Dr. Collier. Blanche of Lancaster and Chaucer. Venetia Digby and Ben Jonson. Countess of Bedford and Ben Jonson. Countess Ranelagh and Milton. Duchess of Queensbury and Gay. Relations with Women, of Sophocles, Virgil, Frauenlob, Bernadin St. Pierre, Rousseau, and Jean Paul Richter. Rahel Levin and her Friendships with Men. Madame Recamier and her Friendships with Men. Elizabeth Barrett, Hugh Stuart Boyd, and John Kenyon. Clotilde de Vaux and Auguste Comte. Madame Swetchine and her Friendships with Men. FRIENDSHIPS OF MOTHERS AND DAUGHTERS Madame de Sevigne and Madame de Grignan Madame de Rambouillet and Julie d'Angenne Mrs. Browne and Felicia Hemans. Naomi and Ruth. FRIENDSHIPS OF SISTERS Dido and Anna. Hannah and Martha More. Mary and Agnes Berry. Charlotte, Anne, and Emily Bronte. Joanna and Agnes Baillie. FRIENDSHIPS OF WOMAN WITH WOMAN Treatment of Female Friendship in Literature. School-girl Friendships. Friendships in Conventual Life. Jeanne Philippon and Angelique Boufflers. Agnes Arnauld and Jacqueline Pascal. Madame de Longueville and Angelique Arnauld. Friendships between Queens and their Maids of Honor. Sakoontali and Anastiya. Marie de Medicis and Eleanora Galigaei. Queen Philippa and Philippa Picard. Lady Jane Beaufort and Catherine Douglas. Mary Stuart and her Four Marys. Queen Elizabeth and her Attendants. Queen Anne and Sarah Jennings. Marie Antoinette and the Princess de Lamballe. Queen Hortense and Madame de Faverolles. PAIRS OF FEMALE FRIENDS Beatrice Portinari and Giovanna. Dorothea Sydney and Sophia Murray. Katherine Phillips and Regina Collier. Elizabeth Rowe and the Countess of Hertford. Countess of Pomfret and Countess of Hertford. Lady Harley and Mrs. Montague. Hannah More and Mrs. Garrick. Elizabeth Carter and Catherine Talbot. Charlotte Smith and Lady O'Niel. Anna Seward and Honora Sneyd. The Countess of Northesk and Anna Seward. Eleanor Butler and Sarah Ponsonby, the Ladies of Llangollen. Fanny Burney and Mrs. Thrale. Guenderode and Bettine Brentano. Miss Benger and Lucy Aikin. Lucy Aikin and Joanna Baillie. Mrs. Hemans and Miss Jewsbury. Mary Mitford and Mrs. Browning. Madame de Stael and Madame Recamier. Madame Swetchine and the Countess Edling. Countess D'Ossoli and the Marchioness Arconati. The Duchess of Orleans and her Lady Companion. THE NEEDS AND DUTIES OF WOMAN IN THIS AGE Evils and Defects of Society and their Remedy. The Ideal of Marriage. Public Life versus Domestic Life. Caste: Diminution of its Influence. The Common Destiny, and the Peculiar Destiny, of Woman. Life in the Harems of the East. Right of Woman to every form of Education and Labor. Grounds of the exclusion of Women from Public Life. The Right of Women to engage in Politics. The Inexpediency of their doing so. Impartial Consideration of both sides of the Question. Morality, eternal; Politics, temporary. Gradual historic Emancipation of Woman. Comparative Condition of Woman in the Oriental, the Classic, the early Christian, and the Modern World. Relation of Mohammed and of Jesus to Women. Light thrown on the Condition of Women in Greece by the History of Sappho. Sentiment of Chivalry towards Woman. Woman ennobled by sharing in great public Interests. Decline of Letter-writing in our day. Duty of Women to cultivate Conversation. Duty of Women to cultivate the art of Manners. Value of model Types of Women. Disinterestedness, the Redemption of Man. Woman as seen in Mythology. Conclusion of the matter. Friendship in the Future.
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